Canada’s prison system is taking steps to prevent and respond to a potential COVID-19 outbreak with, among other things, a quarantine plan that would be executed under “extreme circumstances.”
Correctional Service Canada (CSC) spokeswoman Martine Rondeau said there has not yet been a case of coronavirus in a federal corrections institution. Protocols are in place to prevent infection, including heightened hygiene regimes, increased signage and a rule that says visitors should stay away if they’re sick or showing signs of a cough, fever or respiratory illness.
Institutional health care services are prepared to handle cases of influenza and other respiratory illnesses such as COVID‑19, she said.
“We have contingency plans for extreme circumstances. CSC would comply with requirements set by public health authorities,” Rondeau said. “Although it is highly unlikely, this could include an institution being quarantined.”
Any decision on a potential prison lockdown due to COVID-19 would be made in collaboration with local health authorities.
Correctional Investigator of Canada Ivan Zinger visited Drumheller Institution in Alberta this week and said he was encouraged by the level of preparation for a potential COVID-19 outbreak. CSC is distributing huge quantities of supplies to each institution, including gloves, gowns, masks, sanitizer and wipes, he said.
“Everyone crosses their fingers and hopes this won’t happen, but I’m confident that the service, on this one, is certainly up to the task of containing it,” he said.
Zinger said his main concern is the possibility of staff not making it in to work, out of fear or for other reasons.
Like nursing homes and long-term care facilities, he said, prisons are higher-risk environments.
They are typically crowded, stressful, contained environments, with populations that have disproportionate levels of chronic diseases, often because of a large number of offenders with past drug or alcohol addictions and histories of poor nutrition.
In the event of a lockdown, Zinger said, offenders with mental health issues or chronic diseases and the elderly are particularly vulnerable.
CSC manages more than 23,000 inmates; about 14,000 are incarcerated and another 9,000 are under community supervision.
Other countries have taken steps to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus behind COVID-19 in prisons.
Iran opted to temporarily release more than 54,000 prisoners.
In Italy, deadly riots erupted after officials imposed strict measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, including a suspension of visitors.
Alternatives to prison visits
In Canada, officials say alternatives to prison visits are available, such as telephone calls or video visits.
Justin Piche, a prisoner rights expert at the University of Ottawa, suggested Canada could adopt an approach similar to Iran’s by safely releasing a significant number of people in federal prisons, provincial and territorial jails and immigration detention centres who don’t pose a threat to public safety.
But Catherine Latimer, executive director of the John Howard Society of Canada, said she expects that an outbreak would prompt CSC to take stronger measures to restrict movement and limit contact with the outside. She said an infection could spread faster on the inside.
“Contagious diseases are definitely harder to contain in prisons, given the close confinement and often crowded conditions, the poor ventilation and nutrition, and substandard health care,” she said.
Sen. Kim Pate, a long-time advocate for prisoners’ rights, said health services are inadequate in prisons and health emergencies like COVID-19 can make the situation worse.
“We now know that there were significant physical and mental health consequences associated with the isolation of Canadian patients who were quarantined in the community as a result of the SARS crisis of nearly two decades ago,” she said.
“Knowing that these harms occurred for patients in a health care setting, it doesn’t take much to imagine the situation for those in prison. Prisoners are already too often going without adequate health care in an environment where needs tend to be viewed as risks, and treated as such.”